Part-2An inward-looking oath by the psalmist, the middle two verses have been of particular interest to political movements that invoke collective memory to mobilize social action.

LamentationWilliam Billings, “Lamentation Over Boston” (1778), sung by Yale-New Haven shape note singers



Margaret Bendroth                                                                              John Stauffer

Bethel 1Bethel plaque

Bethel HistoryFranklin &


Bethel plaquesRev Smith

Rev. Robert Smith, Jr., at the New Bethel Baptist Church, Detroit


Judy HauffHollow Square

Judy Hauff in Ontario leading a shape-note song in the summer of 2012.